With a minimum word limit of 1000 words, and within 2 weeks, You will be required to answer 6 short questions. Payment of $200.00 will be released if all 6 questions are answered correctly. If you wish to refresh your memory on granger causality, please read the following Wikipedia link: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granger_causality If you wish to refresh your memory on convergent cross mapping (CCM), please read the following Wikipedia link: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergent_cross_mapping And please read the following link for an example of how CCM is applied to infer whether causation is bidirectional, unidirectional or etc: http://www.uvm.edu/~cdanfort/csc-reading-group/sugihara-causality-science-2012.pdf Below HERE ARE THE SIX Questions, divided into part 1 and part 2: PART 1 Question 1 A study is conducted to examine the relationship between median magnesium intake (X) and %all cause mortality (Y). Please read the study found on the following link: http://m.jn.nutrition.org/content/144/1/55.long?view=long&pmid=24259558 Analyse X and Y using granger causality. Based on your analysis, does X cause Y, or does Y cause X, or neither? Show the steps of the granger causality calculation which you used to arrive at your conclusion. Question 2 Using convergent cross mapping (CCM), analyse X and Y again. Based on CCM analysis, does X cause Y, or does Y cause X, or neither? Show your CCM calculation steps Question 3 Using CCM again, please state whether the causal relationship between X and Y is bidirectional, transitive, unidirectional, externally forced, or neither (no causal relationship) and the CCM calculations which you use to arrive at your conclusion. PART 2 Question 4 A study is conducted to examine the relationship between Resting heart rate (X) and %all cause mortality (Y). Please read the study found on the following link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446757/ Analyse X and Y using granger causality. Based on your analysis, does X cause Y, or does Y cause X, or neither? Show the steps of the granger causality calculation which you used to arrive at your conclusion. Question 5 Using convergent cross mapping (CCM), analyse X and Y again. Based on your analysis, does X cause Y, or does Y cause X, or neither? Show your CCM calculation steps Question 6 Using convergent cross mapping (CCM) again, please state whether the causal relationship between X and Y is bidirectional, transitive, unidirectional, externally forced or neither (no causal relationship) and the CCM calculations which you use to arrive at your conclusion.